Signs that you need coffee, #4

You go at the office machine and put an espresso cup in place, which can hold about 60 ml max.

You slide in an espresso capsule.

You press the “Large” button which, spoiler, produces around 110 ml coffee.

You stand in front of the machine in amazement while the coffee overflows the cup, wondering what went wrong.

You thank your good fortune that spared you the embarrassment as no colleague was in the company canteen at that time 🙂

I’m a translator for Skeptical Science

Short version: I’m honoured to be accepted as a volunteer translator for the Debunking Handbook and skepticalscience.com.

Hoaxes, myths, fake news. Unless you’ve been living under a rock (which is mildly unlikely given you’re reading a blog right now) you’ve encountered at least one, probably many. Is fluoridated water a plan to impose a communist government in the US? (no). Do airplanes spray us with chemicals to make us obedient? (no). Are the members of the UK Royal Family lizards? (no). Do vaccines cause autism? (hell no).

THEY are watching YOU (?)

Over the years, the issue has gotten me both fascinated and to the brink of despair. I’m genuinely fascinated in the way people think –or, as is unfortunately often the case, don’t. And I frequently despair when witnessing how easy it is for people, even ones that I think very highly of, to fall victims to the stupidest of conspiracy theories.

Hard as I try, I’m not immune to this myself –why would I? As a recent example, when reading that “people who curse are smarter” (yes I’m painfully aware of the irony) I immediately fell for it. It was only later that I found out that this is an existing but brutally misrepresented piece of research [link, in Greek].

Many times, when discussing with friends or family, I’ve heard yet another hoax, myth or conspiracy theory. I have then tried, and completely failed, to make my friend or relative aware of the misinformation or fallacy; and not for a lack of well-founded arguments. So I started looking for a way to effectively communicate science and, ultimately, truth.

That’s how I found the Debunking Handbook and skepticalscience.com. Upon reading it, in English, I immediately knew that that’s what I was looking for. The decision to help this effort by translating the handbook in Greek was almost a no-brainer.

Signs that you need coffee, #3

You go at the office machine and put the cup and the capsule in place. You do not press the “start” button.

You wait in front of it for 60 seconds straight, wondering is the machine is broken.

I think I need holidays. And coffee. Mostly coffee. Wait, did I finally press this button?

How to make an espresso / cappuccino freddo

So you went for vacations in Greece or Cyprus or southern Italy and liked the cold coffee they serve there? Or maybe you have a Greek colleague who’s busting your balls non stop about how great cold coffee is, and just want him to shut up? You’re at the right place!

Now you’re talking’

These recipe is for both espresso freddo and cappuccino freddo which are exactly the same thing; you just add cold foam milk on top of the espresso freddo to make the cappuccino version.

Over the years I’ve tried to simplify the recipe a bit. It’s not barista-level good, but anyone who’s tried it tells me it’s pretty decent.

You can see the video here:

To begin with, here’s the equipment you need:

  • A strong coffee mixer. This is an absolute must, you can’t do without it. Outside of Greece they are called “drink mixers” (you can find them in amazon.de for example). They look like this:
mixer
  • One or more suitable tall glasses. You need them to be around 200-250 ml for espresso freddo and 300-350 ml for cappuccino freddo. The ones from IKEA are fine.
Trinkglas
  • Two cocktail shakers, one for the milk and one for the coffee. It’s ok if you don’t have shakers though, you can just use normal glasses. But you can also buy them from amazon.de.
shaker

Now let’s see the stuff you need to prepare every time before you make cold coffee.

  • I’m sure you’ll be surprised to learn that you need coffee! Basically you need a double espresso, around 100ml. What I usually do is use the Lungo capsules for my Dolce Gusto machine, and set it to 3 lines instead of 4.
  • You also need straws, medium or thin ones. Don’t get the thick ones, they’re good for smoothies but not cold coffee.
  • You need ice cubes. For every coffee, you need 5-6.
  • If you’re going to make cappuccino (not espresso) freddo, you need milk, and you need it cold. Let me say that again, because it’s really really important: COLD. Ideally it should be 2 degrees. That means that you need to put it at the back of the fridge, not at the door where it’s a bit warmer. I usually put it in the refrigerator about 10min before I start. Keep it in the fridge until the moment you actually need it.

    You also need to experiment a bit with the kind of milk you’ll use. I’ve found that the best one -at least from the ones you find in a regular supermarket- is full fat UHT milk, 3.5%. The one you get at the fridge of the supermarket isn’t as good –no idea why. If you find a “barista milk” get it; they have more proteins so they froth better.

  • One of the shakers, the one to use for milk, has to be really, really cold. Put it in the refrigerator for at least an hour before making the coffee.

The basic idea is that, in order to make the foam milk, the milk has to be cold and stay cold. That’s why you need its container to also be frozen.

Now that we’ve prepared everything, let’s get to work.

  • The first thing you need to do is prepare the coffee. If you also want sugar, you need to add it immediately afterwards, while the coffee is still hot, and stir it a bit with the mixer; that way it will melt nicely and you won’t get the awful crunchy feeling of unmelted sugar.
  • Now we need to get our coffee ice cold. Put 5 or 6 ice cubes in the shaker or glass. Pour the coffee swiftly over the ice cubes. Stir it a bit with the mixer, but too much, you don’t want it to turn into foam. 5-6 seconds should be enough. Then pour everything (coffee+ice cubes) in the glass. 
  • If you want an espresso freddo, you can add a straw and stop here, you’re done. Otherwise you have one more step to prepare the cold foam milk. 
  • Get the milk and the 2nd shaker (or glass) out of the fridge. Fill the shaker just below half full. Stir it with the mixer for some time (at least 30 sec, can be more) until the surface is smooth and free of bubbles. This part is exactly why the shaker has to be cold. If it’s not, it will warm up the milk and it will be impossible to turn into foam.

Pro (well, sort of) tip: when holding the shaker with the milk and stirring, try to grab it from the top, not the middle or the bottom. That way the heat from your hand will affect the milk as little as possible.

The result should, ideally, look like this:

Αποτέλεσμα εικόνας για καπουτσινο φρεντο

The water -always with ice cubes!- is mandatory. The beach isn’t, but it’s a very nice addition 😉

How many coffee capsules is it safe to drink per day?

I’ll concentrate on Dolce Gusto capsules for the simple reason that that’s what I have at home (well, that, plus a Krups filter coffee machine, plus an Izzy traditional espresso machine, plus my one-time favorite Bialetti brikka). The results for Nespresso et. al. should be similar.

dolce gusto box

Do note that I’m only considering caffeine content; but that’s not always the only factor. E.g. if you drink anything near 400 cups Lungo decaffeinato in a single day, you will have non-caffeine related problems (WC attendance comes readily to mind ! 😊).

So, straight from Nestle’s faq:

How much caffeine is in each of the drinks?

Specialty Coffee :
– Cappuccino : 107 Mg Caffeine
– Cappuccino Skinny : 90 Mg Caffeine
– Latte Macchiato : 85 Mg Caffeine
– Vanilla Latte Macchiato : 83 Mg Caffeine
– Caramel Latte Macchiato : 83 Mg Caffeine
– Latte Macchito Skinny : 83 Mg Caffeine
– Mocha : 45 Mg Caffeine
– Cappuccino Ice : 35 Mg Caffeine

Coffee Drinks :
– Caffe Grande Intenso : 130 Mg Caffeine
– Espresso Intenso : 115 Mg Caffeine
– Grande Mild : 106 Mg Caffeine
– Light Roast : 106 Mg Caffeine
– Medium Roast : 103 Mg Caffeine
– Café au Lait : 92 Mg Caffeine
– Lungo : 89 Mg Caffeine
– Espresso : 80 Mg Caffeine
– Lungo decaffeinato : 1 Mg Caffeine

Non-Coffee Drinks
– Chai Tea Latte : 34 Mg Caffeine
– Nestea Peach Iced Tea : 9 Mg Caffeine

The usual number that’s given as “safe” caffeine per day for adults is 400 Mg (eg. see “Caffeine: How much is too much?” from Mayo Clinic here). So this amounts to:

Mg caffeine per capsuleMax capsules per day
Max. caffeine per day:400
Specialty Coffee :
Cappuccino1074
Cappuccino Skinny904
Latte Macchiato855
Vanilla Latte Macchiato835
Caramel Latte Macchiato835
Latte Macchito Skinny835
Mocha459
Cappuccino Ice3511
Coffee Drinks :
Caffe Grande Intenso1303
Espresso Intenso1153
Grande Mild1064
Light Roast1064
Medium Roast1034
Café au Lait924
Lungo894
Espresso805
Lungo decaffeinato1400
Non-Coffee Drinks
Chai Tea Latte3412
Nestea Peach Iced Tea944

Spreadsheet is here if you want to play with the numbers (you can also comment on it). I’ve rounded to closest integer because nobody makes 3 cups of coffee and then decides to have another 0.8 😊

Enjoy !

cup-of-coffee.jpg

Serious but hilarious NSA anecdotes

(This one’s for IT guys, perticularly crypto geeks, source is Schneier’s blog)

NSA recently declassified a lectures book from 1973. It contains some real gems, such as these from pages 55/56:

KAG-1/SEC used to be the bible of US cryptographers, was held in every crypto-center and covered everything from message preparation to compromise reporting in considerable detail. While we viewed it as a model of clarity, this perception was not always shared in the real world. A frustrated Navy Chief stormed out of bis crypto-ccntcr on board a carrier at sea, banded KAG-1 to a sailor and jokingly said “Throw this dam’ thing overboard.” He did. Several ships thereafter steamed back and forth for several days, but never found it. Winds, tides, and currents were studied to predict where it might come ashore with results so ambitious as to offer little hope and, in fact, it was never recovered – at least by us.

This incident triggered an R 1 study on what happens to our documents in salt water. A tank was made, and a copy of KAG-1 immersed. It stayed there for a year or so with no sign of deterioration. Agitators were added to stimulate wave action for another few months, with still no appreciable effect. We never did find out how long such a document would last. Subsequent work, however, has shown that good paper is nearly impervious to salt water, apparently indefinitely. A visit to S2’s exhibit of materials recovered from the sea bottom will bear that out. There you can see perfectly legible codes that had been under water since World War II, together with extraordinarily well-preserved items of hardware and magnetic tape that had been on the bottom for many years. These facts add to the previously expressed skepticism about jettison as a way to get rid of our stuff unless at very great depths and in completely secret location. (Shortly after WWII, small Army training crypto-devices called the SIGFOY were disposed of beyond the 100 fathom curve off Norfolk. Some years later, they became prize souvenirs for beach combers as they began washing ashore.)

UNSOLVED PUZZLE – We used to store a lot of cryptomaterial in a warehouse at Ft. Holabird. It was fenced and protected by a 24-hour armed civilian guard. One evening, such a guard saw an individual inside the fence, evidently attempting to penetrate the warehouse. He drew his weapon, cried “Halt!” and led the individual to the guard shack and started to call in for help. About that time, the intruder started running, climbed the fence, and disappeared.

We asked the guard why he didn’t shoot – he said he was afraid he might hurt somebody.

CONFETTI – When we manufacture one-time tape, a by-product of the punching process is millions upon millions of tiny, perfectly circular pieces of paper called “chad” that come out of holes in the tape. This chad was collected in burn bags and disposed of. Someone thought it would make good public relations to give this stuff to high school kids for use as confetti at football games. Inevitably, one of the burn bags was not quite empty when the chad went in. At the bottom, were a couple of TOP SECRET key card book covers and a few assorted keys. They carried the impressive caveats of those days like “CRYPTO – CRYPTO-CLEARANCE REQUIRED” and were, to use a term earlier referred to, “fascinating” to the kids when they discovered them.

One of the girls, whose father happened to be an Army officer, tacked soine of this material on her souvenir board. When Daddy saw it, he spiralled upward. He decided that it must be destroyed immediately; but first made a photograph of it for the record. He tore it up, flushed it away, and reported in. With some difficulty, various cheerleaders and other students who had glommed on to some of this material were tracked down, and persuaded to part with it.

We no lonser issue confetti.

A History of U.S. Communications Security (Volumes I and II);

the David G. Boak Lectures, National Security Agency (NSA), 1973

http://www.governmentattic.org/18docs/Hist_US_COMSEC_Boak_NSA_1973u.pdf